As a highly infectious disease, Upper respiratory infection (URI) has a high morbidity rate in Cat. It is essential for every cat-raising family to take good measures to prevent the emergence of URI. To prevent and treat cats’ upper respiratory infections, we can start from aspects such as residence, dirty air, poor sanitation, stress, complication, parasitic infections, and malnutrition.
Prevention of Cat Upper Respiratory Infection
1. Reduce Stress Response: Efforts to reduce stress response must continue conducting from the moment the cat is taken back home, because sometimes even a simple change of cage can be enough to induce some cat URIs to occur. Keeping the premises as clean and hygienic as possible and providing shelter that does not require extensive movement or cleaning is the key to controlling cat URIs. Regrouping cats living in one place has been linked to the recurrence of URIs. If group feeding is necessary, it is more advantageous to use a smaller group than a large group, so that the frequency of cats moving out and in can be minimized.
If you need to keep them separately, it is better to divide them in a large room. Considering that cats need a place to hide, reduce surrounding noise (especially dog barking), maintain the light and dark cycle of light and comfortable temperature, and provide toys and scratchable surfaces are also important to ease the cat’s stress. Unnecessary treatment should be kept to a minimum-grasping or compulsory medication that disgusts cats must be fully weighed against the stress caused by these operations. Increasing social activities may help relieve cat stress and stress, but it must be done carefully. Cats are taken out of their cages and held by a stranger and taken to a strange room to play may help relieve some of the cats’ boredom, but in others cats may produce strong stress (and are prone to certain diseases spread). The owner should learn to observe the cat’s response to interactive activities and will do things such as grooming or caressing in the cage, or allowing the cat to play in a clean, quiet area outside the cage, or allowing the cat to sit on their thighs (only for healthy vaccinated cat) For cats that have been vaccinated) etc.
2. Disinfection: Most URI pathogens can survive in the environment for a few hours (such as FHV-1) to a few weeks (such as Bordetella) and can be inactivated with conventional disinfectants. When an FCV outbreak is suspected, strict attention to disinfection is necessary. 1:32-fold diluted household bleach (5% sodium hypochlorite) can be used to clean the surface of objects to inactivate goblet virus. Similarly, other items used as bleaching agents in the home, such as calcium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (UCL), have also been proven to be effective in killing non-enveloped viruses. Like bleach, these products without detergent properties must be used to clean the surface of the item before cleaning. Other reagents that have been proven to have a disinfecting effect include potassium monopersulfate and available hydrogen peroxide. These two reagents are reported to have stronger detergency and better bactericidal activity on the surface of organic matter. Compared to related products. Many independent studies have repeatedly shown that quaternary ammonium disinfectants cannot actually kill non-enveloped viruses, even though such products have been repeatedly claimed and labeled as effective. Caliciviruses cannot be reliably inactivated by alcohol disinfectants. The hand sanitizers commonly used in rescue stations may not be completely effective against caliciviruses (although they should still be used by all animals to protect public health). Compared with other alcohol disinfectants, disinfectants containing 60-90% ethanol and propanol are more effective against Calicivirus. As mentioned above, the risk of stress and contaminant dispersal caused by cleaning a single cat cage in a typical box style may outweigh the benefits of thorough disinfection. If possible, the cat cage should be cleaned where it lives, and the cat cage should be thoroughly cleaned, disinfected and dried between the two cats.
In short, the prevention and control of infection mainly depends on proper feeding and management. The basic principle is to minimize the urgency with a well-controlled and well-ventilated environment, dilute the pathogens to the lowest contact concentration, and new adult cats or The kittens should be observed in isolation for at least two weeks, because the female cat may become the carrier, and it is not easy to measure, so the kitten is best weaned at 4 weeks of age; each cat cage should be separated by at least one meter, and some Barriers, gloves should be worn when carrying cages, and each cage must be replaced or disinfected before use.
3. Accommodation: Good housing conditions, reduced stress, a sense of security, and effective cleanliness are complementary to promote cat health. A good house has a direct impact on the health of the cat, and is beneficial to cleaning work and alleviating the stress of cats. In terms of the incidence of cat URI at the rescue station, living conditions may be the most important single factor. A recent study showed that only 60 of the 1434 cats sent to rescue stations in the UK showed URI during their stay in the rescue station. The cats in this study generally live in large rooms at the rescue station. They can comfortably enter and exit freely indoors and outdoors with telescoping doors, and provide ample hidden space for cats. Separated garbage and food are completely isolated. Isolated barking noise, and uninterrupted care.
4. Treatment: Symptomatic treatment and supportive treatment should be taken for the affected cat, especially for acute onset, sufficient water and nutrients should be added. When rehydrating the sick cat, adding thymosin in an appropriate amount can improve the body’s immunity and enhance disease resistance. Note that the secretions in the nasal cavity and eyes of the affected cat are often removed. Sprays or saline can be used to help clear purulent secretions. In addition, vasoconstrictor drugs such as 0.25% epinephrine hydrochloride can be used to nasal drops to reduce the amount of serous mucus secreted by the nasal cavity, but it is not suitable for sick cats with mucopurulent secretions. Use broad-spectrum antibiotics to prevent secondary infections. Ampicillin is preferred, 10-20 mg/kg body weight, intramuscular injection or oral administration, 2 to 3 times a day. These antibiotics have little clinical side effects and are suitable for the treatment of puppies.
If it is suspected that the cat has mycoplasma infection, doxycycline, 5-10 mg/kg body weight, orally once every 12 h. For conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia, chloramphenicol or tetracycline ointment can be used at least 4 times a day, and should continue to be used for 2 weeks after the clinical symptoms disappear. Corneal ulcers caused by infectious rhinotracheitis virus can be treated with antiviral eye medicines such as trifluorouridine or acyclovir eye drops, once every 2 hours, while alternating antibiotic eye medicines. Oral lysine 250mg twice a day can interfere with the replication of herpes virus and reduce the severity of infectious rhinotracheitis. It can also be intramuscularly injected with 0.2-0.4ml polymyosin, once every other day, to inhibit herpes virus.
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