Feline Calicivirus Infection (FCV), also known as infectious rhinotracheitis, is a multiple oral and respiratory infection of felines caused by feline calicivirus. Mainly manifested as upper respiratory tract symptoms, biphasic fever, serous and mucus rhinorrhea, conjunctivitis, mental depression, some cats can hear the rattle of breath, difficulty in eating, salivation, oral ulcers, etc.
Clinical Symptoms of Feline Calicivirus
Cats mainly present with difficulty in eating and mouth with salivation. Clinical examination found that the tongue surface has ulcers of different sizes, mostly concentrated on the back of the tongue, the ulcers are slightly depressed, red, and the edges are not regular; Cats with tongue discomfort constantly lick their mouths due to tongue discomfort; a small number of cats will have a slight increase in body temperature, reaching a maximum of 39.7 degrees Celsius; dry, cracked rhinarium; severe mental depression, and no significant change in spirit.
Laboratory Diagnosis of Feline Calicivirus
1. Virus isolation test: The oral secretions of sick cats are collected for inspection, virus isolation is performed, and saliva is inoculated with F81 cells after proper treatment and blindly transmitted to the fourth generation. Cytopathy occurs in the fourth generation, and the cells shrink and merge, and finally completely fall off. Suspended.
2. Electron microscopic examination: the supernatant of the poisoned cell culture was taken and observed under negative electron microscope, and goblet virus particles can be seen. Using its cell components for ultra-thin electron microscopy observations, goblet virus particles arranged in a lattice can be seen in the cytoplasm.
3 Toxicity determination: Take the limbs of a 40-day-old test cat, then divide them into two groups and keep them in isolation. Each cat in the first group was inoculated with 2 ml of saliva secreted by sick cats by intranasal drip; the second group was a control group. The same amount of saline was inoculated according to the method of the first group. After receiving the poison, the clinical symptoms were observed every day. The oral secretions of poisoned cats were collected and sent for examination within five days. Results The body temperature of the poisoned group increased, and ulcers, decreased appetite, salivation and other symptoms appeared on the nose and tongue edge on the sixth day after the poisoning. The fifth day of the poisoning can be separated FCV from the oral secretions of the two test cats; while the clinical observation of the control group was normal, and the virus isolation was negative.
Treatment of Feline Calicivirus
1. Immediately isolate the sick cat in the hospital for treatment. Disinfect the floor, cage, utensils, etc. with disinfectant every day.
2. Antivirus: use ribavirin, thymosin, etc.
3. Daily mouth cleaning: Open the mouth of the sick cat, rinse the mouth with 0.1% potassium permanganate, and apply cod liver oil to the ulcer surface.
4. To prevent secondary infection: use ceftriaxone sodium infusion treatment.
5. Vitamin supplementation: use compound vitamin B, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, etc.
6. For those with severe illness and poor appetite, use supportive therapy, intravenously infused with 5% glucose saline, 10% glucose, ATP, coenzyme A, etc.
After taking the above comprehensive treatment measures, the cats with milder illness recovered within 5-7 days; those with severe illness recovered about 10-15 days.
Prevention of Feline Calicivirus
1. Cushions, bedding and cages used by cats at home should be changed frequently, pay attention to disinfection, and take out to sunbathe when the weather is sunny;
2. Regularly vaccinate cats with triple vaccines of panleukopenia, feline viral bronchitis, feline calicivirus disease every year to reduce the incidence of cats;
3. If it is found that there is a cat in the family, it should be separated from the rest of the pets immediately and sent to the pet hospital in time for medical treatment;
4. Under natural conditions, feline caliciviruses are only susceptible to felines, and often occur in cats between 6 and 84 days old. The main sources of infection are sick cats and poisoned cats. The former can discharge a large amount of virus with secretions and excreta during the acute phase, contaminating utensils, ground and objects, and can also be directly transmitted to cats. The latter usually comes from an acute case. Although the clinical symptoms disappear, it can be detoxified for a long time and is the most important and dangerous source of infection. Therefore, reducing the contact between pet cats in the home and wild cats in the wild is the key to cutting off the source of infection.
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