Cat Autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system has lost the ability to distinguish between foreign antigens and its own tissues.
The body’s immune system is the host defense system for people and pet cats, but people usually don’t think the immune system will attack yourself. The job of the immune system is to protect you from invasion by organisms that may make you sick. If the work goes well, you will feel great. If it doesn’t work, your immunity will drop and you may get some diseases.
The whole body of the animal is immune system. The respiratory system seems obvious. The nose, trachea, and lungs control the body’s breathing. Usually the immune system cells are patrolling the body, which seems like policemen patrolling in the city. But they are scattered in the lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, intestines, and circulate in your blood.
However, sometimes immune cells are unable to distinguish foreign antigens and treat their own cells as foreign objects, which will result in attacking their own cells or tissues that may cause autoimmune diseases! When immune cells begin to attack normal cells, the immune system can cause serious illness. These diseases are classified as autoimmune diseases or immune-mediated diseases.
Cat Autoimmune diseases are diseases in which the immune system overactively attacks normal cells as if they were foreign organisms. When antibodies produced by abnormal immune function are identified in the laboratory, autoimmune diseases can be diagnosed. For example, due to gluten sensitivity caused by antibodies against intestinal cells induced by gluten in the diet, or type 1 diabetes, the immune system produces antibodies that attack insulin-producing pancreatic cells.
Immune-mediated diseases are diseases of unknown etiology, but are considered to be regulated by abnormal immune responses. Unlike autoimmune diseases, the antibodies that cause these diseases have not been identified. In dogs and cats, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia is an example of immune-mediated diseases. Dogs also suffer from immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and immune-mediated polyarthritis. These diseases target red blood cells, platelets and joints, respectively.
Causation of Cat Autoimmune Disease
Immune-mediated diseases, in the absence of a recognized underlying disease state, occur after primary dysfunction of the immune system. In contrast, immune-mediated pathology usually occurs as part of the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammation, infectious or neoplastic diseases, but immune dysfunction is easily identified as secondary to underlying disease. For example, the formation of immune complexes is a feature of certain primary immune-mediated (autoimmune) diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus), but it also occurs in infectious (such as FeLV, canine leishmaniasis) or In neoplastic (such as canine breast tumors) disease.
In a 10-year referral hospital survey, primary immune-mediated diseases (excluding skin allergies) accounted for 2% of the total number of cases.
Immune-mediated diseases can be divided into:
Allergic Cat Autoimmune Diseases and Immune System Tumor Immunodeficiency Diseases
1. Primary immune-mediated diseases have a multi-factorial pathogenic mechanism, including the interaction between susceptible factors, which leads to the imbalance of normal immune system homeostasis and the clinical manifestations of immune-mediated diseases. The nature of the imbalance determines the type of abnormal immune expression, but immune-mediated diseases should be regarded as a continuum, in this continuum, a specific set of susceptible factors may trigger concurrent clinical expression of multiple immune abnormalities. Alternatively, the presence of one immune abnormality can alter the immune system, allowing subsequent expression of a second immune-mediated disease. For example, canine IgA deficiency may occur simultaneously with autoimmune or hypersensitivity reactions. Dog and cat thymoma is often associated with myasthenia gravis or giant esophagus. Lymphoma may be diagnosed with both autoimmune hematological diseases.
2. Many factors make animals susceptible to immune-mediated diseases. This situation often occurs in animals of a specific age and sex. Autoimmune and idiopathic immune system tumors occur in middle-aged to elderly animals. Immunodeficiency is generally recognized 12 months ago. Atopic dermatitis is usually first recognized in dogs under 3 years of age.
3. The occurrence of immune-mediated diseases is greatly affected by genetic factors. Dogs of specific breeds and families are more susceptible to immune disorders, so it is possible to establish an inbred lineage of dogs with immune diseases. Identifying genes that determine susceptibility to immune diseases is a major area of contemporary research, but limited research has been conducted on cats and dogs.
4. Environmental factors (for example, exposure to contaminants, microbial antigens (through infection or vaccination) or previous drug treatment) are susceptible factors in human immune diseases, and these factors are gradually being verified by dogs and cats.
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