Cat Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not diagnostically specific and is a syndrome caused by a series of gastrointestinal disorders related to chronic inflammation of the stomach, small intestine, and or colon. It is also one of the culprits of weight loss in elderly cats. The pancreatic duct of the cat is connected to the common bile duct and enters the duodenum. It is precisely because of this anatomical structure that inflammation of the hepatobiliary system, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract can affect each other and become inflamed. Many scholars believe that inflammation of the pancreas or biliary tract is mostly related to retrograde infection of the small intestine, and chronic intestinal inflammation and chronic vomiting caused by cat inflammatory bowel disease in cats are considered to be the main causes of trisomy.

Causation of Cat Inflammatory Bowel Disease

IBD is defined as a primary syndrome. The current popular hypothesis believes that cat IBD is similar to that of humans and dogs, due to local gastrointestinal mucosal immune disorder, accompanied by intolerance to commensal flora and or food antigens, which eventually leads to chronic intestinal Inflammation. Some scholars believe that IBD is a disease related to genetic factors. Animal individuals with this genetic predisposition have disorders in gastrointestinal mucosa during their development. The intestinal immune system is often exposed to many antigens, such as beneficial food antigens, inherent intestinal flora, and various intestinal pathogens that may accompany it. The intestinal immune system must be able to distinguish between harmful and beneficial antigens and produce an appropriate immune response. However, it is not easy to distinguish between food sensitivity and IBD, which leads to the overlapping of these two conditions found in the diagnosis of some clinical cases. If the above doctrine is true, then the goal of IBD treatment should be to reduce antigen stimulation in the gastrointestinal tract and suppress the local immune response of the gastrointestinal immune system to different antigens.

Diagnosis of Cat Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The main clinical symptoms (such as fever, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, jaundice, dehydration and drowsiness, etc.), hematology (ALT, ALKP, Tbil increase, leukocytosis and left nuclear shift), pancreas-specific lipase (fPL), Ultrasound (hepatobiliary, pancreatic echogenic abnormalities, swelling, etc.), biopsy or histopathological examination (the main means of diagnosis, but because it will cause fewer secondary injuries).

Treatment of Cat Inflammatory Bowel Disease

1. Immunosuppressive drug therapy:

Prednisolone (Prednisolone): Used for patients with moderate or severe IBD, especially those with lymphocyte or eosinophilic infiltration. Anti-inflammatory immunosuppressive dose: 1-3 mg/kg orally, once a day; reduce the dose once the symptoms are alleviated; reduce the dose once every 3-4 weeks.

Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone): Subcutaneous injection can be used for cats with extreme malabsorption disease or those who have difficulty taking oral medications. It is also useful for cats with congestive heart failure. Usage: 0.1-0.4mg/kg subcutaneous injection, starting once a day and finally changing every 48-72h.

Budesonide (Budesonide): A new type of glucocorticoid, which is cleared by liver metabolism and theoretically has fewer side effects than prednisolone. The effectiveness of treatment for cat IBD is still not very clear, but the condition of many cats using this drug has been effectively controlled. At present, veterinarians usually use prednisolone in the early stage to control the clinical symptoms of diseased animals, then stop prednisolone and start using budesonide. 1mg/cat, once a day (need to be mixed before use); high dose (2-3mg/cat) can be used for symptom control; it is especially effective for cats with diabetes and Burmese cats.

Chlorambucil: It is an alkylating agent that can be used in cats that have failed prednisolone treatment. When used in high doses, it is easy to develop tolerance. At the same time, the daily blood count should be checked. Usage: 2mg/cat, oral, once every 48-72h.

Cyclophosphamide: Another alkylating agent, sometimes used in cats with moderate IBD. 50mg/cat, taken orally every 3 weeks. Cyclosporine: Some clinicians use this drug to treat refractory IBD cases, especially those in which high-dose prednisolone is not effective.

2. Diet regulation

Effective for patients with mild and moderate IBD, especially those with mild cell inflammatory infiltration (60% of patients are effective);

Give high-protein digestible dog food.

Metronidazole 5-10mg/kg orally, twice a day (or 15mg/kg orally once a day).

Cobalamin 250ug is injected intramuscularly once a week for six weeks, or twice a week for three months, or once a month for 6 months.

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