Cat Toxoplasma is a protozoan disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii; Cats are the ultimate host of Toxoplasma gondii. They can excrete oocysts with strong resistance in feces, contaminate food and ground, and become a source of infection for humans and animals. Healthy adult cats do not necessarily develop the disease even if they become infected, and are transferred to chronic infections. However, young cats and immunocompromised cats will develop the disease. In recent years, the phenomenon of this disease coexisting with cat AIDS has been paid attention to.
Toxoplasma is widely distributed in the world, and more than 200 species of mammals and birds can be infected. Humans can also be infected, and congenital infections cause miscarriage and stillbirth after pregnancy. It is also one of the main causes of death for AIDS patients and is an important zoonotic infectious disease.
Etiology and characteristics of Cat Toxoplasma
Cat Toxoplasma can be divided into three forms: oocysts, cysts, and proliferative worms. Insects of various forms are capable of infecting cats. The cat family is infected by eating meat containing these insects or by preying on infected wild rats. The oocysts can only be seen in the feces of cats, and are worms produced by sexual reproduction in the intestines of infected cats. The oocysts are not infectious immediately after being excreted, and after 2 to 3 days, they become infectious mature oocysts. Mature oocysts have strong resistance to the natural environment and pharmaceuticals, and they still have the ability to infect in the wild for more than 1 year. The cysts can be seen in the brains and muscles of chronically ill cats, and the spherical envelope contains multiple worm bodies. The cysts can be killed by heating to 70 degC. They can survive for 2 months at 4-6 degC and are resistant to digestive juices. Proliferators are 3-month crescent-shaped worms that can be seen in the acute phase and divide and proliferate in live cells. Repeated division in the cell eventually destroys the cell to swim out of the cell, continuously invades other cells and proliferates causing tissue obstacles. And can appear in saliva, nasal juice and urine. The resistance of proliferators outside the cell is particularly weak, and infections from wounds in the eyes, nose, and skin are rare. In congenital infections, the proliferators transfer to the fetus through the placenta.
Treatment of Cat Toxoplasma
Cat Toxoplasma is caused by the infection of the intracellular coccidia parasite Toxoplasma gondii, while 30% of cats infected with Toxoplasma gondii are mainly infected by eating raw meat. Cats infected with Toxoplasma gondii can also be treated, but they can only make the symptoms disappear and make the cat a carrier.
Cats suffering from toxoplasmosis can be treated with clindamycin (10-15mg per kilogram of body weight, 12h apart orally for 2-4 weeks), which has a certain effect. The combination of sulfonamides and antibacterial synergists has the best effect. It is best to use the drug in the early stage of the disease. The drug will be used later to make the symptoms disappear, but it cannot kill the cysts in the tissue and make the animal a carrier. With sulfadiazine + trimethoprim, the former is 7mg/kg, the latter is 14mg/kg, the first dose is doubled, orally twice a day for 3-4 days. The condition improved within 24-48h after starting treatment. Neurological disorders, especially motor neuron defects and muscle atrophy in the lower limbs, take several weeks to subside. When the disease causes uveitis, corticosteroids can be used for local or systemic treatment. There is no need to worry that corticosteroids will worsen the condition. Cats infected with Toxoplasma gondii also infected with FeIJv or FIV have a poor cure rate.
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