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    For fish, Vitamins are also essential. Vitamins are different from amino acids and sugars, and their requirements are very small, but fish and shrimp itself can not be synthesized, mainly from feed. So we need to add. Vitamins are indispensable trace elements for maintaining the growth and development of fish and promoting the metabolism of the body. The symptoms of fish due to the lack of vitamins are different depending on the type of fish. The following are the effects of common vitamins on fish.

    1. The effect of vitamin A on fish:

    By regulating the metabolism of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in the body to maintain the normal growth and reproduction of aquatic animals, it can promote growth and development and maintain bone health. Participate in the synthesis of rhodopsin, the photoreceptor that constitutes the retina. The substances necessary to maintain the normal growth of epithelial cells in the body are very important for maintaining the integrity of the epidermis and mucus layer and the secretion of mucus, which can reduce the susceptibility of fish to some infectious diseases and strengthen the function of phagocytic cells. Promote the immune function of aquatic animals and enhance the resistance to diseases.

    Deficiency: When lacking of Vitamin A, it mainly damages the eye and bone development of fish, resulting in slow growth of fish, poor vision, keratinization of epithelial tissue, night blindness, hemorrhage of fin base and abnormal bone formation. Specific manifestations include: loss of appetite, slow growth, pale body color, anemia, gill and skin bleeding, curved or hypertrophic gill cover, protruding eyeballs, and body deformities.

    Foods rich in vitamin A: animal liver, fish, various milks, cod liver oil, eggs, seafood; plants do not contain vitamin A, but contain its precursor, carotene, which can be converted to vitamin A in the body , Carotene-rich plants are: carrots, spinach, leeks, rape, shepherd’s purse, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, peppers and so on.

    2. The effect of vitamin D on fish:

    Affect the metabolism of phosphorus and calcium in fish, promote the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the intestine and calcification of bone tissue; fish have a strong ability to use vitamin D and can store a large amount of vitamin D in the body, so vitamin D deficiency is not easy to occur disease.

    Deficiency: When fish lack vitamin D, growth is slow, and calcium intake is reduced, which affects bone development, causing bone softening and muscle twitching.

    Foods rich in vitamin D: Plants are almost free of vitamin D and are mainly found in marine fish, egg yolk, animal liver and lean meat; fish receiving more ultraviolet light from the sun can prevent vitamin D deficiency.

    3. The effect of vitamin E on fish:

    Vitamin E, also known as anti-fertility vitamin or tocopherol, has the main role: maintaining the normal reproductive function of fish, and plays a very important role in promoting the spawning physiology and egg quality of fish. Promote body metabolism, promote hormone synthesis, maintain muscle health and improve immune function. Vitamin E is a natural antioxidant that protects cell membranes from oxidation.

    Deficiency: The lack of vitamin E in fish can cause muscle atrophy, nutritional disorders, and degenerative lesions in the tissues. The specific manifestations are: lean back, anemia, poor growth, bulging eyes, endometritis, ascites edema and other symptoms.

    Foods rich in vitamin E: vegetable oils, beans, walnuts and other nuts, milk, eggs, cod liver oil, animal liver, sesame, peanuts, corn and almost all green leafy vegetables.

    4. The effect of vitamin K on fish:

    Vitamin K, also known as coagulation vitamin, has the main functions of participating in the coagulation reaction of animals and promoting the blood coagulation of animals.

    Deficiency: The lack of vitamin K in blood coagulation time of fish will increase 3-5 times, it is easy to cause anemia, liver atrophy and gill, eye, subcutaneous, muscle, stomach and other tissue bleeding.

    Foods rich in vitamin K: green leafy vegetables, milk, meat, egg yolk, cod liver oil, seaweed, spirulina, etc. Fruits and cereals contain less vitamin K.

    5. The role of vitamin C on fish:

    Fish are very sensitive to vitamin C deficiency, manifested as osteomyelitis, slow growth, dark body color, protruding eyeballs, fin gill rot, body surface bleeding, erosion, fish body deformity and reduced disease resistance. However, depending on the type of fish body and physiological stage, the symptoms of deficiency also vary. The self-synthesis of fish larvae is insufficient, and the relative demand is large, so it must be added in sufficient amount. As the individual increases, the demand gradually decreases. When the environment changes abnormally (high temperature, low temperature, bad environment), it needs to be added in excess. The NRC recommends that the amount of vitamin C added per kilogram of grain is 20-50 mg, but the amount can be adjusted according to the type, size and feeding conditions of the fish.

    The requirement of fish for vitamin C is generally determined by the vitamin C content, growth curve, deficiency, etc. in the liver as assessment criteria. Due to the different assessment criteria used, reports on the vitamin C requirements of fish are also different.

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