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    Pay attention to the pain of dogs. Although dogs have good tolerance, they also have pain, so they should be anesthetized for surgery and treated with care. Pain will not only cause pain to dogs, but also inhibit wound healing and other adverse effects. Because the intensity of pain is unpredictable, the current control of surgical pain is generally accepted as preemptive analgesia and multimodal analgesia.
    The so-called “preemptive analgesia” refers to the release of inflammatory factors from the damaged tissue, which leads to peripheral nerve sensitization, resulting in the decrease of pain threshold, resulting in hyperalgesia (that is, the body is more sensitive to pain). The process of uniform sensitivity can be blocked by giving analgesics before pain. Multimodal analgesia refers to the use of different mechanisms of analgesic drugs or / and a variety of analgesic methods, which act on each site in the process of pain generation and transmission, so that the drugs can play a synergistic role and reduce the side effects of a single analgesic.
    Taking neutering operation and castration operation as examples, the characteristics of the pain after these two operations are as follows: body surface pain and visceral involvement pain, inflammatory pain in the operation site, mild to moderate, rapid pain generation and short duration. By choosing the appropriate intensity / duration of analgesic drugs to cover the characteristics of sterilization surgery, we can achieve the right analgesic effect. The sedative / analgesic drugs that doctors usually prescribe before operation include butorphanol / midazolam / diazepam / dextromethomidine / acetopromazine, etc., which can reduce the excitability of central nervous system, or provide advanced analgesic effect through the combination of some of them. Local infiltration anesthesia is often used in sterilization operation, including local infiltration anesthesia and intratesticular infiltration anesthesia. Lidocaine injection is commonly used. The nerve endings at the injection site are temporarily blunt under the action of local anesthetics, so that they won’t hurt when the scalpel is cut. During the postoperative period, if you have been using analgesic drugs, but the dog will still be inactive, shivering, reluctant to be contacted, walk with prudence, or even whine, you must take the dog to do relevant tests.

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